Even though he could only communicate using a muscle in his cheek, 史提芬 Hawking made himself into a world-renowned physicist thanks to his groundbreaking work, impish wit, and refusal to let his disability stifle his potential.

他的书上用自己坐在轮椅上飞过太空的图像来说明,他承认自己宁愿会见玛丽莲·梦露(Issac Newton),也不愿与玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)见面,当他按下椅子上的一个按钮以开玩笑时,他那顽皮的笑容常常被人发现。

史提芬 Hawking was an undeniably fascinating figure. Whether you’对他出色的作品表示敬佩,对在热门电视节目中的露面感兴趣,或者因惯于将人们坐在轮椅上割草的习惯而逗乐–这位宇宙学家所能见到的远不止于此。

 

张贴者 | 心灵加油站

An 偏心 from birth

史提芬 William Hawking was born on January 8th in 1942, in Oxford, England. His arrival was in the midst of WWII and a financial rough patch for his well-educated parents. But 史提芬 took great pride in knowing that he was born on the 300th anniversary of the death of 伽利略·伽利雷.

他微妙的特性可以追溯到他的家人,他的家人经常被描述为“eccentric”束。他们的家庭用车是伦敦的一辆旧出租车,他们在地下室里养蜂,并在温室里放烟花。晚餐时,每个霍金都会全心全意地吃饭,而专心读书。

A young 史提芬 Hawking
A young 史提芬 Hawking. Image credit: IdeasFun.com

史提芬’s father was a researcher in tropical medicine and tried to nudge his son into studying medicine too. But 史提芬’s fascination was for the stars and beyond. He often lay in the backyard along with his mother and siblings, staring up at the stars during warm summer evenings. It was here that young 史提芬 began to question 为什么 宇宙就是这样,并且 为什么 它根本存在。

他的母亲指出了他对天空萌芽的热情,“斯蒂芬总是有强烈的好奇心,” she 记得 深情地。

Down to more earthly interests, 史提芬 Hawking had a proclivity for playing and inventing boardgames. He also showed an interest in how things worked. At home, in his family’这座三层楼的固定器上层房屋从未真正固定过,他好奇地拆解了钟表和收音机。虽然,他很少成功地将它们重新组合在一起。

出奇的普通

In 1950, 史提芬 attended St. Albans School in Hertfordshire, where his sharp mind won him the nickname of “Einstein”在他的同龄人中。尽管他的成绩被评为全班最差的学生,而且他的课业不整洁是老师的绝望。

史提芬’到目前为止,最喜欢的科目是数学。他的老师启发他和一群知识分子用回收的零件建造计算机来解决基本的数学方程式。对数学的兴趣后来促使他通过了奖学金考试,为他赢得了父亲的一席之地’s old college –牛津。这项奖学金得到了他父母的高度赞赏,他的父母没有’没有钱去送他一个人。

数学学位是他的首选,但这不是’牛津大学提供。因此,他选择了他们提供的学位:物理学。

At 17, he began his first year at this prestigious college. It was quite boring for 史提芬’精通的头脑。他找到了工作“ridiculously easy”而且可以做到这一点而无需凝视同学或寻求辅导老师的帮助。他很快发现自己感到孤独和孤独。

 史提芬 Hawking directs his rowing team in Oxford
史提芬 Hawking directs his rowing team in Oxford. Image credit: www.hype.my

But during his second and third year, his personality met a turning point. 史提芬 joined the college rowing club which encouraged him to cultivate a witty, lively and popular image. He wasn’身体很健康,所以他只负责操纵船。但他很快成为俱乐部最大胆的成员–带领他的团队进入危险的航线,这常常导致船只受损。

In less devilish ventures, 史提芬 also developed an interest in classical music, science fiction, and investigating the complexities of the universe. His pursuit of these new hobbies barely left him any time for actual studying. At most, he averaged about an hour a day focusing on school.

这些低俗的学习习惯导致他在最后考试前的焦虑和不眠之夜。如果他要去剑桥大学学习宇宙学,他需要以最高的荣誉通过学位。他在1962年做到了。

面对改变人生的诊断

In 1963, 史提芬’的研究生学习始于剑桥– but so did the first signs of his disease. During his last year at Oxford, he had noticed a few unfamiliar difficulties while rowing. Sometimes he would trip for no apparent reason or slur his speech unexpectedly. But 史提芬 decided to keep these symptoms to himself.

一个下午,当他在大学里走下楼梯时,他失去了平衡,跌下台阶,撞到了头。尽管被事件震撼了,但他将尴尬的跌落归因于一时的分散注意力,仅此而已。

但是,它没有’他的症状恶化需要很长时间。他的讲话明显变得含糊不清,他变得越来越‘clumsier’ than usual. It was only when he returned home for Christmas that his family caught on to his symptoms. They promptly sent him to the doctor, where 史提芬 was tediously examined for two long weeks.

斯蒂芬·霍金的学生
图片来源:电报

Just after his 21st birthday, 史提芬 Hawking was given the devastating news that he had ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). A neurodegenerative disease where sufferers progressively lose control over their voluntary muscles. His doctor gave him two years to live.

史提芬 Hawking now spent his days in his hospital bed, among the beeps of machines and the occasional bustle of passing nurses. He lay there thinking about his studies, his hobbies, and the intriguing girl he met at the New Years party. It all seemed so pointless now. Why bother doing anything when he was just going to die within two years?

他转身看着他旁边的床上的病人,分散注意力。附近床上的病人是一个患有白血病的小男孩。渐渐地,男孩’s saddening state pushed 史提芬 to see his own diagnosis in a different light. Maybe earning his PhD and marrying that girl wouldn’毕竟如此毫无意义。事实上,他想与他的生活做很多事情–在一切结束之前。

史提芬 Hawking and 简·怀尔德 get married July 14, 1965. Image credit: The Sun

So 史提芬 Hawking left his hospital bed, proposed to 简·怀尔德,然后返回剑桥继续他的学业。毕竟,

“智能是适应变化的能力。”

– 史提芬 Hawking

与ALS作战时重塑宇宙学

In 1966, 史提芬 Hawking’s PhD thesis on ‘膨胀宇宙的性质‘被批准了。他现在幸福地结婚了,决心继续他的研究,并对他的前途未卜的前景感到乐观。

他的最初工作给整个科学界带来了众多冲击中的第一波。 1974年,由于他前所未有的辐射理论,他被选为皇家学会最年轻的研究员之一。同年,斯蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)也接受了加州理工学院的教授职位。他继续与著名物理学家合作研究突破性理论,这些理论将永远改变我们对宇宙的认识。

But his achievements were on par with the progress of his disease. 史提芬 began to use a cane to help him walk. His speech became so slurred that only close family and friends could understand him. Soon enough, he needed help to get out of bed and feed himself. But 史提芬 was fiercely independent and determined to not be restricted by his disability.

图片来源:《纽约邮报》

After much persuasion, he was finally convinced to use a wheelchair to aid his mobility. As is now characteristic of 史提芬 Hawking, he quickly became notorious for his wild wheelchair driving. His biting wit and popularity among his colleagues continued, but his illness and occasional brashness distanced him from many close friends.

In 1979, 史提芬 Hawking became the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, a distinguished post once held by Isaac Newton. He went on to receive a host of honorary titles, degrees, and awards from major universities and scientific societies. His academic career was shooting upwards, but his physical health was declining.

失去言语并成为畅销书

1985年,他遭受了致命的肺炎发作,需要接受 气管切开术 – which removed the last remnants of his speech. 史提芬 Hawking’他的工作能力受到很大威胁,他现在需要全天候的护理。少数护士和他的研究生中的少数几个参加了会议。

第二年,他的语音障碍严重案例得到了语音合成器的帮助。该设备使他可以在屏幕上选择单词,然后由计算机读出。作为斯蒂芬,他经常通过告诉孩子吟声来使用他的新玩具。“science jokes”。在一次特定的采访结束时,他问了一个毫无戒心的船员“什么是黑洞?”戏剧性的停顿后,他开玩笑“您在黑袜子中发现的东西。”

史提芬 Hawking giving a lecture at the Bloomfield Museum of Science in Jerusalem. Photo credit: Getty Images

当他初次使用该设备时,他用眼睛来控制书写,但是在他生命的最后十年中,他只能动动右脸颊的肌肉来说出自己的话。他花了整整一分钟的时间写一个单词,每个句子十分钟。这是长期的耐心练习,因为有些人变得不耐烦而只会离开他,所以引起了很多挫败感,有时甚至感到孤独。

但是他写作中的挫折并没有’t stop 史提芬 Hawking from documenting his astounding research. In 1988, he became a sort of “physics rockstar”与他备受争议的书 时间简史:从大爆炸到黑洞。令他惊讶的是,这本关于宇宙学的复杂书籍售出了超过一百万册–成为最畅销的非小说类书籍。更令人惊讶的是,它保持了一年多的位置。

名人身份与和平过去

Despite his condition, 史提芬 Hawking wrote and published over 15 books which remain hugely popular today. Their lasting impact on the fields of modern astronomy and theoretical physics made him one of the most distinguished thinkers of our time. Moreover, his efforts in making this knowledge widely accessible to the non-scientific community also made him into the best-known living physicist in the world.

His confinement to a wheelchair did nothing to subdue his adventurous spirit. 史提芬 traveled the world, was submerged in a submarine, and even suspended in a zero-gravity flight. He lent his voice and personality to popular TV series such as The Simpsons, The Big Bang, and Star Trek. His wit and child-like humor stole the spotlight in interviews with the likes of Conan O’Brien and 约翰·奥利弗(John Oliver)。他主持并叙述 天才, a series on tackling historically scientific questions. 史提芬 even saw his marriage and career unfold before his eyes during the Oscar-winning portrayal of his life 万物理论.

史提芬 Hawking suspended in a Zero Gravity flight. Image credit: New Scientist

At 76 years old, 史提芬 had long exceeded his goals and life expectancy. But on the morning of March 14th, 2018, the brilliant human being that was 史提芬 Hawking passed away peacefully at his home in Cambridge. Curiously enough, just as his birth was on the deathday of Galileo, 史提芬’s own death coincided with the birthday of Albert 爱因斯坦. A fact that 史提芬 himself surely found amusing.

图片来源:边缘

Although we have lost one of the most fascinating minds on earth, 史提芬 Hawking has left an insurmountable legacy. His far-reaching influence, teachings, and inspiration to others have and will continue to make waves in both academic and social spaces. He demonstrated that his disease was merely a test of patience and adaptability –不是障碍。他一遍又一遍地证明,不管生活多么糟糕,成功都是 总是 通过决心,专注和一点幽默可能。

要有好奇心,不管生活看起来多么艰难,总有可以做的事情,并且可以成功。重要的是,您不只是放弃。”

– 史提芬 Hawking